OSTEOPOROSIS - 10 MARIJUANA RESEARCH PAPERS

Osteoporosis - Medical cannabis Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017

Osteoporosis - Medical cannabis Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017

 

"Osteoporosis is the most prevalent of all degenerative diseases in the World"


 

DEFINITIONS TO TRANSCEND THESE DOCUMENTS

 

d9 THC - The main psychoactive component of cannabis.

 

Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors - are found on most of the body's cell membranes, are activated or modulated by G-proteins and / or cannabinoids, physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, cognition and memory

 

Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors - are found in most of the body's cells and most abundantly in the brain, nervous system and liver.  CB2 receptors, are activated or modulated by G-proteins and / or cannabinoids, physiological processes, including immune system, neurological processes, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

Endocrinology - the study of hormone function; the regulation of body dynamics

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - A pituitary gland (brain) hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine.

Thyroxine is a catalyst in the body, increasing metabolic rate); growth and development; metabolism of food - carbohydrates, fats, proteins, electrolytes, and water; vitamin requirements; reproduction; and resistance to infection.

Agonist - activating chemical that binds to a receptor to produce a biological response

Adrenal Cortex - produces fight response hormones, like adrenalin, anti-inflammatory anabolic steroids like cortisol and aldosterone.

G-proteins - are a family of proteins that act as switches, turn on and off bodily functions at the molecular level

Congenital - birth defect

Gene - a section of DNA, which is copied to make a protein or enzyme, which has a specific function in the body, a physical component of tissue, bone or an enzyme that are an integral part of a mental or physical process.

Mitochondria - components of cells that supply energy to the cell (cellular respiration)

Hormone - biochemical that signals growth, modifies mood, regulate system

Transcription - assemble using section of DNA code - which is a gene

Hyper - overactive, big

Hypo - underactive - small

 

 

NITRIC OXIDE AND CANNABINOIDS AFFECT RELEASE OF GROWTH HORMONES

 

1 Endocrinology 1994 to 1995. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych (Czech Republic) 134: 535 to 536. Vratislav Schreiber. 1995.

1 In a brief review of advances made in endocrinology during the past two years surprisingly the receptors for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and thyroid hormones occupy the foremost position. Mutations of the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone receptor may cause congenital hyperthyroidism or resistance to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mutation). An interaction of thyroid hormone receptor with a conserved transcriptional mediator was discovered.

1 The reports on the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with are still controversial. CRH deficiency reveals neonatal but not adult glucocorticoid need--at least in rodents. The concept of receptors was challenged by the discovery of "inverse agonists", i.e. ligand binding by previously activated receptors. To make endocrinology even more complicated it was shown, that the congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia may be caused not by a deficiency in an adrenal cortex enzyme, but by a mutation of the mitochondrial transport protein , steroido-genic acute protein..

1 The gene for X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia was isolated, its mutation can cause a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, too. Animals lacking a functional estrogen receptor develop osteoporosis-- and this is true in humans too. Nitric oxide has more functions in the body than we previously thought;  it's involved in the maintenance of diurnal rhythms. The interest in endogenous cannabinoids is still flourishing, especially in the brain.

1 Clinical implications of basic research are best documented by the discoveries of G-protein roles in clinical syndromes. The Nobel prize for medicine and physiology in 1994 was awarded for the discovery of G-proteins.

 

"Such lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, little physical activity and low dietary calcium intake are risk factors for osteoporosis as well as for many other non-communicable diseases." -  Gro Harlem Brundtland

 

CANANBINOID DEFFICIENCY = OSTEOPOROSIS

2 Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid-2, regulates bone mass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103: 696 to 701. Ofek et-al 2006.

2 The endogenous cannabinoids bind to and activate two G protein-coupled receptors, the predominantly central cannabinoid receptor type 1) and peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 2. Whereas Cannabinoid-1 mediates the cannabinoid psychotropic, analgesic, and orectic effects, Cannabinoid-2 has been implicated recently in the regulation of liver fibrosis and atherosclerosis. Here we show that Cannabinoid-2-deficient rodents have a markedly accelerated age-related trabecular bone loss and cortical expansion, although cortical thickness remains unaltered. These changes are typical -reminiscent of human osteoporosis and may result from differential regulation of trabecular and cortical bone remodeling.

2 The Cannabinoid-2 phenotype is also characterized by increased activity of trabecular osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), increased osteoclast (the bone-resorbing cell) number, and a markedly decreased number of diaphyseal osteoblast precursors. Cannabinoid-2 is expressed in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. A Cannabinoid-2-specific agonist that does not have any psychotropic effects enhances the endocortical osteoblast number and activity and restrains trabecular osteoclastogenesis, apparently by inhibiting proliferation of osteoclast precursors and receptor activator of N.F..kappa..B ligand expression in bone marrow-derived osteoblasts/stromal cells.

2 The same agonist attenuates ovariectomy-induced bone loss and markedly stimulates cortical thickness through the respective suppression of osteoclast number and stimulation of the endocortical bone formation. These results demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system is essential for the maintenance of normal bone mass by osteoblastic and osteoclastic Cannabinoid-2 signaling. Therefore, Cannabinoid-2 offers a molecular target for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, which is the most prevalent degenerative disease in developed countries.

 

"Last year I was diagnosed with osteoporosis. I was over 50, Caucasian, thin, small-framed, and I have it in my genetic history. It was almost a slam dunk..dunk." - Sally Field

 

CANNABINOIDS SIMULATE BONE FORMATION - STOP BONE LOSS

3 Regulation of Skeletal Remodeling by the Endocannabinoid System. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1116: 414 to 422. Itai Bab. 2007.  Ofek et-al 2006. op-cit

3 Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, its presence and involvement have been reported in a handful of biological systems. Recently, the skeleton has been identified as a major endocannabinoid target through both the neuronal Cannabinoid-1 and predominantly peripheral Cannabinoid-2 cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoid-1 is present in sympathetic nerve terminals in bone, whereas Cannabinoid-2 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the respective bone-forming and -resorbing cells.

3 Furthermore, the skeleton appears as the main system physiologically regulated by Cannabinoid-2. Cannabinoid-2-deficient rodents show a markedly accelerated age-related bone loss and the Cannabinoid-2 locus in women is associated with low bone density and osteoporotic fractures. Since activation of Cannabinoid-2 attenuates experimentally induced bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation, and because synthetic cannabinoids are stable and orally available, a therapy based on synthetic Cannabinoid-2 agonists is a promising novel target for antiosteoporotic drug development.

 

"I take a multivitamin, I take extra C, I take chondroitin and glucosamine for my joints, I take calcium for my bones. And by the way, weight-bearing exercises can help ward off osteoporosis and yoga helps ward off arthritis." -  Raquel Welch

 

CANNABINOIDS CONTROL BONE MASS - PROMOTE FRACTURE HEALING

4 Cannabidiol, a major non-psychotropic cannabis constituent enhances fracture healing & stimulates lysyl hydroxylase activity in osteoblasts. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. In Print. Kogan et-al 2015.

4 Cannabinoid ligands regulate bone mass, but skeletal effects of cannabis (cannabis and hashish) have not been reported. Bone fractures are highly prevalent, involving prolonged immobilization and discomfort. Here we report that the major non-psychoactive cannabis constituent, CBD-Cannabidiol, enhances the biomechanical properties of healing rat mid-femoral fractures.

4 The maximal load and work-to-failure, but not the stiffness, of femurs from rats given a mixture of CBD-Cannabidiol and d9-THC for eight weeks were markedly increased by CBD-Cannabidiol. This effect is not shared by THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis), but THC potentiates the CBD-Cannabidiol stimulated work-up to failure at six weeks post fracture followed by attenuation of the CBD-Cannabidiol effect at eight weeks. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), the fracture callus size was transiently reduced by either CBD-Cannabidiol or THC four weeks after fracture but reached control level after six and eight weeks.

4 The callus material density was unaffected by CBD-Cannabidiol and/or THC. By contrast, CBD-Cannabidiol stimulated MRNA expression of Plod1 in primary osteoblast cultures, encoding an enzyme that catalyzes lysine hydroxylation, which is in turn involved in collagen crosslinking and stabilization. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy .... we confirmed the increase in the collagen crosslink ratio by CBD-Cannabidiol, which is likely to contribute to improved biomechanical action of the fracture callus. Taken together, these data show that CBD-Cannabidiol leads to improvement in fracture healing and demonstrate the critical mechanical role of collagen crosslinking enzymes.

 

"In recognising the global problem posed by osteoporosis, WHO sees the need for a global strategy for prevention and control of osteoporosis, focusing on three major functions: prevention, management and surveillance." - Gro Harlem Brundtland

 

CANNABIS - CANNABINOIDS RECEIVED BY SKELETAL NERVES

5 Cannabinoids & the skeleton: from cannabis to reversal of bone loss. Annals of Medicine 41: 560 to 567. Bab et-al 2009.  Itai-Bab. 2007. op-cit

5 The active component of cannabis, d9-THC, activates the Cannabinoid-1 and Cannabinoid-2 cannabinoid receptors, thus mimicking the action of endogenous cannabinoids. Cannabinoid-1 is predominantly neuronal and mediates the cannabinoid psychotropic effects. Cannabinoid-2 is predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues, mainly in pathological conditions. So far the main endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, have been found in bone at 'brain' levels.

5 The Cannabinoid-1 receptor is present mainly in skeletal sympathetic nerve terminals, thus regulating the adrenergic tonic restraint of bone formation. Cannabinoid-2 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, stimulates bone formation, and inhibits bone resorption. Because low bone mass is the only spontaneous phenotype so far reported in Cannabinoid-2 mutant rodents, it appears that the main physiologic involvement of Cannabinoid-2 is associated with maintaining bone remodeling at balance.

5 Therefore, it is concluded that it is protecting the skeleton against age-related bone loss. Furthermore, in humans, polymorphisms in CNR2, the gene encoding Cannabinoid-2, are strongly associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that a synthetic Cannabinoid-2-specific agonist rescues ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

5 Taken together, the reports on cannabinoid receptors in rodents and humans pave the way for the development of first) diagnostic measures to identify osteoporosis-susceptible polymorphisms in CNR2, and second) cannabinoid drugs to combat osteoporosis.

 

"As we may know, osteoporosis affects around 10 million Americans, most of whom are over 55, and it is the cause of an estimated 1.5 million fractures annually. Lois Capps."
 

 

MMJDOCTORONLINE NOTES

In California, to purchase cannabis of any kind, every adult requires a licensed physician's medical evaluation and recommendation. 

Fortunately, the Medical Board of California approves and encourages medical doctors to use telemedicine whenever possible, to treat patients where the quality of service is the same as in a personal one on one clinic visit.  Out online medical evaluation process takes only five to ten minutes - because it is designed to take the minimum of time to meet legal requirements and yet deliver the core service - to evaluate your conditions and symptoms.  There is no charge - until you are approved / recommended for medical cannabis, Cannabis ID, or a cultivation permit.  

MMJDOCTORONLINE documents are used at dispensaries, delivery services, cooperatives, compassion clubs, clinics and other points of access for cannabis based medicines in California and many jurisdictions in Nevada (tax exempt.).

In 2018, when any adult is legally eligible to buy cannabis, MMJ ID Card holders will be tax exempt, with an expected savings of about $80 per ounce.

 

FURTHER READING

 

6 THE PINEAL GLAND & CANNABIS

6 Cannabis or Cannabis among other psychedelics.... facilitates the activation of the pineal gland and helps turn on the third eye or the mind’s eye .....directing our spiritual evolution to wholeness. The pineal gland, located in the centre of the brain..... is about a quarter of an inch in size, reddish-gray....and weighs about one-tenth of a gram.

6 Studies in rodents imply that pineal manufactured melatonin regulates new bone cell deposition, which is consistent with the observed bone stimulating growth caused by CBD, the second most common phytocannabinoid of cannabis.   Pineal-derived melatonin mediated action on the bone cells through M-T-2 receptors. This pathway might be a novel target for osteoporosis therapy.   

 

7 OSTEOPOROSIS BLOG - INFORMATIVE

7 420 Magazine Forums

7 Researchers looking at the effects of cannabis on bones have found its impact varies dramatically with age.  The study found that while the drug may reduce bone strength in the young, it could protect against osteoporosis, a weakening of the bones, in later life.

7 The results were uncovered by a team at the University of Edinburgh who compared the drug's effects on rodents.  Osteoporosis affects up to thirty percent of women and about twelve percent of men at some point in their lives.

7 The group found that cannabis can activate a molecule found naturally in the body that is key to the development of osteoporosis.  When the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB-1) comes into contact with cannabis, it has an impact on bone regeneration.  However, until now, it was not clear whether the drug had a positive or negative effect.

7 Researchers, funded by the Arthritis Research Campaign, investigated this using rodents .... which lacked the Cannabinoid-1 receptor. The scientists then used compounds - similar to those in cannabis - that activated the Cannabinoid-1 receptor. They found that compounds increased the rate at which bone tissue was destroyed in the young.

7 Despite this, the study also showed that the same compounds decreased bone loss in older rodents and prevented the accumulation of fat in the bones, which is known to occur in humans with osteoporosis.

 

"This is an exciting step forward, but we must recognise that these are early results and more tests are needed on the effects of cannabis in humans to determine how the effects differ with age in people. We plan to conduct further trials soon and hope the results will help to deliver new treatments that will be of value in the fight against osteoporosis." - Stuart Ralston, the Arthritis Research - Rheumatology -University of Edinburgh. The above results are collected from the Cell Metabolism Journal.

"Today, osteoporosis affects more than 75 million people in the US, Europe and Japan and causes more than 2.3 million fractures in the Americal and Europe alone." - Gro Harlem

 

8 DOES OSTEOPOROSIS QUALIFY AS A QUALIFYING MEDICAL CONDITION FOR MARIJUANA IN CALIFORNIA?

8 Qualifying Conditions .....Ask a Doctor MJ Blog ....Pricing... 1Sign In....2Register ...3How Medical Cannabis Can Help the Elderly

8 Osteoporosis is a condition that is very likely to affect the elderly as bone deterioration increases with advancing age. Bones become weak, brittle, which increases the likelihood of breakage and fracture. The literature strongly suggests that CBD or Cannabidiol may help with strengthen bones as well as speed the healing of broken bones. CBD is thought to work by preventing an enzyme called FAAH from breaking (catabolizing) down bone-forming compounds, thereby preserved bone strength.

8 Bis-phosphonate, which is typical medication for osteoporosis, can come with burdensome  side effects such as muscular pain, fever and joint pain. Alternative treatment in the form of medical cannabis is promising as it combats theses effects and is a more natural form of medication to treat osteoporosis. For the elderly, smoking may not be the most appealing way to take medical cannabis; therefore, using tinctures may be a more ideal and discreet method.

 

 

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